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大学英语四级备考笔记:翻译练习

2015-01-19 14:17:41

练习

筷子(chopsticks)是最能反映中国饮食文化特色和传统的重要象征之一。筷子有着悠久的历史,有关筷子的记载可以追溯到3000多年以前。无论到何时何地,中国人吃饭都很难离开筷子。此外,筷子还可以作为礼仪(etiquette)、馈赠、寄情、收藏的特殊工艺品和礼品。如今,筷子已经出现在全世界很多国家的餐桌上,西方还流行起了“为了您的健康,请您拿起筷子来”的时潮。

句1:筷子(chopsticks)是最能反映中国饮食文化特色和传统的重要象征之一。

思路点拨:本句的句子主干为“筷子是…之一”,译为chopsticks are one of…; “最能反映中国饮食文化特色和传统”可处理成定语从句,来修饰“重要象征”,译为that can most reflect the characteristics and traditions of Chinese food culture。“象征”译为symbol.

译:Chopsticks are one of the important symbols that can most reflect the characteristics and traditions of Chinese food culture.

句2:筷子有着悠久的历史,有关筷子的记载可以追溯到3000多年以前。

思路点拨:本句可处理成and连接的并列句。句中“悠久的”可用long来表达;“有关…的记载”译为the records of…; “追溯到”译为be traced back to。

Chopsticks have a long history and the records of them can be traced back to more than 3000 years ago.

句3:无论到何时何地,中国人吃饭都很难离开筷子。

思路点拨:本句中“无论到何时何地”可处理成状

语;后面部分可用句型“it is +形容词+for sb. to do sth.”。“离开筷子”即“没有筷子”,可译为without chopsticks.

Wherever and whenever, it is hard for Chinese people to have meals without chopsticks.

句4:此外,筷子还可以作为礼仪(etiquette)、馈赠、寄情、收藏的特殊工艺品和礼品。

思路点拨:本句中 “…可以作为…”可处理成…can be used as…的形式。“此外”可以译为in addition; “馈赠”可译为gifting;“寄情”即“表达情感”,可译为expressing feelings。

In addition, chopsticks can also be used as special handicrafts and presents for etiquette, gifting, expressing feelings and collection.

难点注释:

句1:白色污染指的是塑料污染(plastic pollution)。

“指的是”可译为refer to.

White pollution refers to plastic pollution.

句2:不可回收的(unrecyclable)塑料午餐盒沿途到处都是。

Unrecyclable plastic lunch boxes are all along roads.

句3:塑料购物袋在空中飞扬。

“在空中飞扬”可译为dance in the wind.

Plastic shopping bags dance in the wind.

句4:如果我们继续使用这些会发生什么呢?

If we continue using them, what would happen?

句5:有一天,它们会将我们埋葬在白色垃圾堆中。

“会将我们埋葬在白色垃圾堆中”可译为might bury us in an ocean of white rubbish.

One day they might bury us in an ocean of white rubbish.

句6:那时的地球—我们共同的家园将成为一个垃圾桶(dustbin)。

Then the earth, our common homeland, would be a dustbin.

句7:为防止这个噩梦成为现实,政府间应该互相紧密合作并将口头承诺付诸实际行动。

“为防止这个噩梦成为现实”译为目的状语:To prevent this nightmare from coming true; “互相紧

密合作”译为work closely with each other; “将口头

承诺付诸实际行动”译为back up their verbal commitment by actions.

译:To prevent this nightmare from coming true, governments need to work closely with each other and back up their verbal commitment by actions.

练习3

句8:同时,我们应当从自身做起,为绿色环保出一份力。

“从自身做起”译为:start from ourselves.

译:We, as individuals, should start from ourselves to help protect the green environment.

White pollution refers to plastic pollution. Unrecyclable plastic lunch boxes are all along roads. Plastic shopping bags dance in the wind. If we continue using them, what would happen? One day they might bury us in an ocean of white rubbish. Then the earth, our common homeland, would be a dustbin. To prevent this nightmare from coming true, governments need to work closely with each other and back up their verbal commitment by actions. We, as individuals, should start from ourselves to help protect the green environment.

练习4

唐朝(Tang Dynasty)被历史学家认为是中国文明最辉煌的时期。唐朝的首都在长安。在与印度和中东(the Middle East)的交流中,在他们的促进下,唐朝在许多领域里得到了长足的发展。唐朝是文学和艺术的黄金时期。唐朝通过科举制度(civil service examinations)在全国选出优秀的儒家文人

(Confucian literati)为政府效力,而唐朝的政府体系在儒学官僚(Confucian bureaucratic)的支持下也日臻完善。公元8世纪中期,唐朝势力开始衰落。

难点注释

句1、2:唐朝(Tang Dynasty)被历史学家认为是中国文明最辉煌的时期。唐朝的首都在长安。

第一、二句在翻译时可以整合为一句,其中“唐朝的首都在长安”可以翻译为定语从句来表示。“被…认为是…”可以译为be regarded by …as…; “最辉煌的时期”即为鼎盛时期,可译为a high point.

Tang Dynasty, whose capital is Chang’an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization.

句3:在与印度和中东(the Middle East)的交流中,在他们的促进下,唐朝在许多领域里得到了长足的发展。

“与印度和中东(the Middle East)的交流中,在他们的促进下”可采用合译法,即Stimulated by the contact with…Stimulated by the contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a great development in many fields.

句4:唐朝是文学和艺术的黄金时期。

译:The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art.

句5:唐朝通过科举制度(civil service examinations)在全国选出优秀的儒家文人(Confucian literati)为政府效力,而唐朝的政府体系在儒学官僚(Confucian bureaucratic)的支持下也日臻完善。

此句结构较为复杂,翻译时,首先理清句子主干:唐朝的政府体系日臻完善。前半句可以处理成一个非谓语动词做原因状语的形式,即Served by…, serve 本意为“服务”,也可作“效力”讲,与逻辑主语the government system of Tang Dynasty是动宾关系,故用过去分词形式;而其中再嵌套一个后置定语selected through…来修饰Confucian literati;“在……的支持下”译为under the support of…。

Served by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations, the government system of Tang Dynasty was gradually  perfected under the support of Confucian bureaucratic.

句6:公元8世纪中期,唐朝势力开始衰落。

译:By the middle of the eighth century A.D., the power of Tang Dynasty began to ebb.

Tang Dynasty, whose capital is Chang’an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization. Stimulated by the contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a great development in many fields. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art. Served by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations, the government system of Tang Dynasty was gradually perfected under the support of Confucian bureaucratic. By the middle of the eighth century A.D., the power of Tang Dynasty began to ebb.
 

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