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专八听力命题规律透析

2010-02-26 03:40:54作者:齐静

TEM-8听力考试的第一部分讲座(Mini-lecture)通常为一篇900字左右的文章,要求考生边听边做笔记,然后完成10道题的填空任务,答题时间为10分钟。本部分历来是较为复杂的听力测试项目,是考生的难点所在,将其放在听力考试第一部分更增加了考生的紧张度,考生必须保持良好的心态和过硬的综合素质才可以轻松应答。这里我们希望通过对历年真题的分析总结出此项考题的一些特点与命题规律,以期帮助考生在考试中更好地应对此项考题。
 
讲座部分的命题规律主要体现在选材和试题设置两个方面。
 
(一)选材特点分析
 
1.题材与英语专业知识课程相关
自2004年考试大纲进行修订后,讲座部分的选材原则规定为:讲座部分的内容与英语专业知识课程相关。而以往各年讲座部分选材范围则比较广泛,涉及生活中的很多领域,但也有相当一部分讲座选材符合新大纲的要求。为使考生更清楚地了解本部分在选材上历年的变化以及最新的选材要求和特点,现将1997-2006年的讲座材料的主要内容归纳如下:
 
年份
题材
1997
介绍信用卡,从信用卡的种类谈起,谈及信用卡系统的操作,并讨论了信用卡的优缺点。
1998
介绍英语中外来发音(Received Pronunciation)的起源、发展、特点以及现状。
1999
介绍体育运动中商业赞助的问题,包括商业赞助兴起的原因,其应该考虑的几个问题以及其帮助商业公司销售商品的具体运作流程。
2000
介绍如何演讲,从准备、应注意的几个问题以及增加吸引力的途径三个方面进行了论述。
2001
介绍政府的新闻发布会,从其优缺点谈起,提到新闻发布会可能产生的负面影响以及在准备发言的过程中应注意的几个问题。
2002
介绍大学学习中的一些学习活动,如写论文和进行专题讨论,并一一讨论了这些活动在大学教育中所充当的角色。
2003
介绍亚伯拉罕·马斯洛(Abraham Marslow)的人类需求理论,按照重要性将其分为了四个方面,并简述了这一理论的特点。
2004
介绍在交谈中令谈话对象感觉轻松的四种技巧,并提及了它们在延续交谈以及建立友谊中的重要性。
2005
介绍研究性论文的写作,从其基本步骤、类别与特点以及如何选择题目三个方面进行了讲述。
2006
介绍什么是文学作品的意义,其意义主要可以从三个方面加以理解,即作者的写作意图、作品本身包涵的意义以及读者引申出的意义。
 
从以上列表可以看出,由于新大纲的颁布,2005年之后的讲座选材有了一些变化。2005年之前的讲座所选的材料都是介绍性的文字,没有很强的专业性。选材范围相当广泛,一般都是一些考生日常接触的事物,如文化、艺术、教育、大学生活、政治和经济常识、通俗科学等等。而从2005和2006年的讲座考题中我们可以看到所选的材料与英语专业知识课程有关,因此可以预测今后此题型的选材会更趋向于突出英语专业知识课程的内容,涉及的范围会包括:英美文学,英美国家概况,语言学,跨文化交际,词汇学,英语教学法,英语教育心理学,语法,视听,听力,口语,阅读,写作,翻译,第二外语,外贸函电及实务等等。考生只有在平时打下扎实的专业课基础,才能在此项听力的考试中取得满意的效果。
 
2.“总—分—总”的篇章结构特点
分析历年考题可看出,本部分选文材料基本上为总—分—总结构,层次明晰,开始概括并指明分述的主要观点,中间逐一阐述,最后总结。
这里以2006年真题的原文为例对其加以说明。讲座的开始就明确指出主题是讲述文学作品的含义所在,并且指明将从理解文学作品的三种途径进行分述;中间部分将三种途径一一进行阐述;在结尾部分进行了总结。
 
结构
标志性主题句
总述
Good morning. In today’s lecture, we shall discuss what meaning is in literary works. ... I’d like to discuss three ways to explain what meaning is.
(1)    Meaning is what is intended by the author.
(2)    Meaning is created by and contained in the text itself. And
(3) Meaning is created by the reader.
分述
Now let’s take a look at the first approach, that is meaning is what is intended by the author. ...
Now, let’s move on to the second approach to meaning, that is meaning is created by and contained in the text itself. ...
Now, the third approach to meaning, that is meaning is created by the reader. ...
 
总结
 
 
The essential point of this lecture is that meaning in literature is...
 
3.口语化的句式特点
由于讲座一般为独白或演讲稿,因此具有口语性较强的特点。
1)一般在句式上会采用比较简单的结构,不会出现非常复杂或冗长的句式。纵观1997至2006年的真题,开头的表达大部分为“Good morning, today’s lecture is / will ...” 或“Good morning, I’d like to ...”,非常简洁明了。
2)在一句中,尤其是主语或关键点之后会出现一些解释性或表示态度、感受等的插入语以利于听者的理解。现将近五年真题中出现的一些此类表达归纳如下:
解释性
表示态度、观点
that is (02,04,05,06)
as far as ... be concerned (06)
in other words (03,06)
Generally speaking, ...(05)
I mean, ... (06)
I mean, ...(06)
I say it again, ...(05)
according to my observation, ... (04)
It’s a way to say, ... (04)
It was, to put mildly, ...(04)
Actually, ... (03)
Simply, ... Invariably, ... (04)
In Maslow’s view, ... (03)
Certainly, ...(03)
 
3)大量使用祈使句,唤起听者的共鸣或号召听者,使表达的意思十分鲜明。最常见的表达便是:Let’s take a look at ..., Let’s move on to ..., (2006年真题)。除此之外,在分述各点时也常常运用祈使句。例如2006年真题原文中在阐述第一个分述点时就写到:
First, go to the library and read other works by the same author.
Second, get to know something about ...
And last, get to know what were the cultural values and symbols of the time.
4)较多使用疑问句引入话题或进行论证。
2005年的试题在开篇部分就用了3个特殊疑问句引出所要论述的问题:
Then what is writing a research paper like?
How are we going to write one?
What are the steps in producing a research paper and what are the points we need to take care of?
2006年的试题也在开篇部分用了2个特殊疑问句引出所要论述的问题:
How do we know what a work of literature is supposed to mean?
Or what its real meaning is?
 
4.大量使用各类逻辑关系词
讲座中的题材虽然广泛,但是所用词汇均在大纲范围之内,不出现难度极大的生词与难词。而且在材料中有很多表示语篇内句子之间关系的词汇,可以将这些词汇归为两类:
1)表示时间顺序、方位关系、列举与例证、引申与转折、推论与归纳、原因与结果等等逻辑概念的过渡词语。这类词语通常是一些连词和连接性副词,例如:afterwards, later, then, nearby, next to, firstly, secondly, finally, next, last, and besides, besides, furthermore, moreover, likewise, otherwise, similarly, but, however, nevertheless, though, because, for, therefore, hence, accordingly, consequently, thus等。也可以是一些介词词组、非限定分句、无动词分句和限定分句,例如:since then, on the right/left, to the east/west/north/south, for example/instance, in other words, on the other hand, on the contrary, for all that, for that reason, in addition, in the same way, in that case, in brief, in short, to sum up, as a result, if so, if not, in conclusion, what is more等。
2)通过关键词的重复,同义词、近义词、反义词的使用表达句子之间的承接关系。例如2006年试题中多次重复中心词“meaning”以加强听者的印象和帮助理解。
我们可以看到每一年的试题中都会出现大量的逻辑词汇,这里仅以2006年真题为例进行展示,请注意文中下划线的逻辑词汇:
Good morning. In today’s lecture, we shall discuss what meaning is in literary works. When we read novels, poems etc., we invariably ask ourselves a question, that is what does the writer mean here. In other words, we are interested in finding out the meaning. But meaning is a difficult issue in literature. How do we know what a work of literature is supposed to mean? Or what its real meaning is? I’d like to discuss three ways to explain what meaning is.
1.       Meaning is what is intended by the author.
2.       Meaning is created by and contained in the text itself. And
3.       Meaning is created by the reader.
Now let’s take a look at the first approach, that is meaning is what is intended by the author. Does a work of literature mean what the author intended to mean? And if so, how can we tell? If all the evidence we have is the text itself and nothing else, we can only guess what ideas the author had according to our understanding of literature and the world. In order to have a better idea of what one particular author means in one of his works, I suggest that you do the following.
First, go to the library and read other works by the same author. Second, get to know something about what sort of meanings seem to be common in literary works in that particular tradition and at that time. In other words, we need to find out what the literary trends were in those days. And last, get to know what were the cultural values and symbols of the time. I guess you can understand the author’s meaning much more clearly after you do the related background research.
Now, let’s move on to the second approach to meaning, that is meaning is created by and contained in the text itself. Does the meaning exist in the text? Some scholars argue that the formal properties of the text like grammar, diction, uses of image and so on and so forth contain and produce the meaning so that any educated or competent reader will inevitably come to more or less the same interpretation as any other. As far as I am concerned, the meaning is not only to be found in the literary traditions and grammatical conventions of meaning, but also in the cultural codes which have been handed down from generation to generation. So when we and other readers including the author as well are set to come up with similar interpretations, that kind of agreement could be created by common traditions and conventions of usage, practice and interpretation. In other words, we have some kind of shared basis for the same interpretation. But that does not mean that readers agree on the meaning all the time. In different time periods with different cultural perspectives, including class, belief and world view, readers—I mean, competent readers—can arrive at different interpretations of texts. So meaning in the text is determined by how readers see it. It is not contained in the text in a fixed way.
Now, the third approach to meaning, that is meaning is created by the reader. Does the meaning then exist in the reader’s response? In a sense, this is inescapable. Meaning exists only in so far as it means to someone. And literary works are written in order to awake sets of responses in the reader. This leads us to consider three essential issues. The first is, meaning is social, that is language and conventions work only a shared meaning and our way of viewing the world can exist only as shared or sharable. Similarly, when we read a text, we are participating in social or cultural meaning. So response to a piece of literary work is not merely an individual thing, but is part of culture and history. Second, meaning is contextual. If you change the context, you often change the meaning. And last, meaning requires reader competency. Texts constructed as literature have their own ways of expressions, or sometimes we say styles. And the more we know of them, the more we can understand the text. Consequently, there is, in regard to the question of meaning, the matter of reader competency, as it is called, the experience and knowledge of comprehending literary texts. Your professors might insist that you practice and improve competency in reading, and they might also insist that you interpret meaning in the context of the whole work. But you may have to learn other competencies too. For instance, in reading Mark Rutland’s The Untouchables, you might have to learn what the social structure of India was like at that time, what traditions of writing were in practice in India in the early 1930s, what political, cultural and personal influences Mark Rutland came under when constructing the imaginative world of the short novel.
Ok! You may see that this idea that meaning requires competency in reading in fact bring us back to the historically situated understandings of an author and his works as we mentioned earlier in this lecture. To different conventions and ways of reading and writing, and to the point, that meaning requires a negotiation between cultural meanings across time, culture, class ect. As readers, you have in fact acquired a good deal of competency already, but you should acquire more. The essential point of this lecture is that meaning in literature is a phenomenon that is not easily located, that meaning is historical, social and arrived from the traditions of reading and thinking, and understanding of the world that you are educated about.
Thank you for your attention.
 
(二)试题设置特点分析
在分析了讲座的题材、篇章结构、句式以及用词的特点之后,我们应对讲座试题的设置特点做进一步的了解。下文我们从试题形式和考点两方面进行分析。
1.提纲式试题
讲座的试题部分大多采用提纲的形式,尤其是2005年和2006年的试题更是只把原文中的要点进行了归纳和罗列,把干扰信息一律排除在外。提纲的特点是:首段进行概括;中间可以直接看到文章从几个方面进行说明,而且层次分明;用语非常简洁精练,基本上多用短语而不是句子。
试题的另一个特点是其文字与原文的文字不完全重合,即题面中的部分不会出现与原文中完全一样的文字。例如题面中分点罗列的考点,在原文中可能放在同一部分中或一起进行阐述。因此考生在做笔记时,一定要按照文章一开始所列的要点进行记录;同时要注意理解原文,不能只顾埋头记笔记。
例如2006年试题中开头为:
In reading literary works, we are concerned with the “meaning” of one literary piece or another. However, finding out what something really means is a difficult issue.
    There are three ways to tackle meaning in literature.
而听力原文中却是:
Good morning. In today’s lecture, we shall discuss what meaning is in literary works. When we read novels, poems etc., we invariably ask ourselves a question, that is what does the writer mean here. In other words, we are interested in finding out the meaning. But meaning is a difficult issue in literature. How do we know what a work of literature is supposed to mean? Or what its real meaning is? I’d like to discuss three ways to explain what meaning is.
2.考点分析
   讲座的主要设题点为主题或结论的句子中出现的关键性名词,对某一事物特点的描述以及分述各点时的细节描述。按照考查要求可以分为考查学生对细节的捕捉与理解和考查学生的综合概括能力。
1)考查细节
此类题的答案均可直接从原文中找到,只要考生能够集中注意力,判断准确,一般比较容易填出。
其中一类为考查与段落主题或结论有关的关键词,下面以2005年真题为例进行说明。
第1题:A. Similarity in (1) __________
原文:Writing a research paper is much like writing an essay. Both kinds of writing involve many of the same basic steps. ...
答案:basic steps。
第2题:B. Difference mainly in terms of (2) ___________
原文:What makes a research paper different is that much of your raw material comes not from your own head, but from printed sources...
答案:raw material。
还有一类是考查各分述点的细节描述,我们仍以2005年部分试题为例。如:
第3题:ordinary essay: ideas in one's (3) ___________
原文:What makes a research paper different is that much of your raw material comes not from your own head, but from printed sources: mainly books and periodicals in the library.
原文中只提到了研究性论文的不同之处在于原材料来自于书本或期刊杂志,而不是来源于自己的大脑。那么与什么不同呢?通过上文可以知道是与普通论说文作比较,因此可以判断出不同之处恰恰是普通论说文的特点,即其材料来源于自己的大脑。所以本题的正确答案为head。
第4题为 —to gather (4) ___________
原文:In a survey-type research paper, you gather facts and a variety of opinions on a given topic.
答案:facts。
2)考查综合概括能力
此类题的答案需要在理解原文的基础上进行概括总结,对考生而言有一定的难度。如2005年第6题:The writer should be (6) ___________. 其听力原文为:
In a survey-type research paper, you gather facts and a variety of opinions on a given topic. You make little attempt to interpret or evaluate what your sources say or to prove a particular point. Instead, through quotation, summary, and paraphrase, you try to provide a representative sampling of facts and opinions to give an objective report on your topic.      
You explain the pros and cons of various attitudes or opinions, but you don’t side definitely with any one of them.
原文并没有直接陈述作者应该是何种态度,但是通过其用语和描述(如:make little attempt to..., instead, try to provide a representative sampling of...and an objective report on..., but you don’t side definitely with any one of them),考生可以概括出答案是objective。
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